Poor Richard 1745
For the Benefit of the Publick, and my own Profit, I have performed this my thirteenth annual Labour, which I hope will be as acceptable as the former.
The rising and setting of the Planets, and their Conjunctions with the Moon, I have continued; whereby those who are unacquainted with those heavenly Bodies, may soon learn to distinguish them from the fixed Stars, by observing the following Directions.
All those glittering Stars (except five) which we see in the Firmament of Heaven, are called fixed Stars, because they keep the same Distance from one another, and from the Ecliptic; they rise and set on the same Points of the Horizon, and appear like so many lucid Points fixed to the celestial Firmament. The other five have a particular and different Motion, for which Reason they have not always the same Distance form one another; and therefore they have been called wandering Stars or Planets, viz. Saturn xxx, Jupiter xxx, Mars xxx, Venus xxx, and Mercury xxx, and these may be distinguished from the fixed Stars by their not twinkling. The brightest of the five is Venus, which appears the biggest; and when this glorious Star appears, and goes before the Sun, it is called Phosphorus, or the Morning-Star, and Hesperus, or the Evening-Star, when it follows the Sun. Jupiter appears almost as big as Venus, but not so bright. Mars may be easily known from the rest of the Planets, because it appears red like a hot Iron or burning Coal, and twinkles a little. Saturn, in Appearance, is less than Mars, and of a pale Colour, Mercury is so near the Sun, that it is seldom seen.
Against the 6th Day of January you may see xxx rise 10 35, which signifies the Planet Mars rises 35 Minutes after 10 o' Clock at Night, when that Planet may be seen to appear in the East. Also against the 10th Day of January you will find xxx sets 7 13, which shows Venus sets 13 Minutes after 7 o'Clock at Night. If you look towards the West that Evening, you may see that beautiful Star till the Time of its setting. Again, on the 18th Day of the same Month, you will find xxx rise 9 18, which shews that Saturn rises 18 Minutes after 9 at Night.
Or the Planets may be known by observing them at the Time of their Conjunctions with the Moon, viz. against the 14 Day of January are inserted these Characters, xxx, which shews there will be a Conjunction of the Moon and Saturn on that Day. If you look out about 5 o' Clock in the Morning, you will see Saturn very near the Moon. The like is to be observed at any other time by the rising and setting of the Planets, and their Conjunctions with the Moon; by which Method they may be distinctly known from the fixed Stars.
I have nothing further to add at present, but my hearty Wishes for your Welfare, both temporal and spiritual, and Thanks for all your past Favours, being,
Thy obliged Friend,
Beware of little Expences, a small Leak will sink a great Ship.
Wars bring scars.
A light purse is a heavy Curse.
As often as we do good, we sacrifice.
For I have no Lands.
It's common for Men to give 6 pretended Reasons instead of one real one.
Vanity backbites more than Malice.
He's a Fool that cannot conceal his Wisdom.
Great spenders are bad lenders.
All blood is alike ancient.
You may talk too much on the best of subjects.
A Man without ceremony has need of great merit in its place.
No gains without pains.
Had I revenged wrong, I had not worn my skirts so long.
Graft good Fruit all, or graft not at all.
Idleness is the greatest Prodigality.
Old young and old long.
Punch-coal, cut-candle, and set brand on end,
is neither good house wife, nor good house-wife's friend.
He who buys had need have 100 Eyes,
but one's enough for him that sells the Stuff.
There are no fools so troublesome as those that have wit.
Many complain of their Memory, few of their Judgment.
One Man may be more cunning than another, but not more cunning than every body else.
To God we owe fear and love; to our neighbours justice and charity; to our selves prudence and sobriety.
Fools make feasts and wise men eat them.
Light-heel'd mothers make leaden-heel'd daughters.
The good or ill hap of a good or ill life,
is the good or ill choice of a good or ill wife.
Tis easier to prevent bad habits than to break them.
Every Man has Assurance enough to boast of his honesty, few of their Understanding.
Interest which blinds some People, enlightens others.
An ounce of wit that is bought,
Is worth a pound that is taught.
He that resolves to mend hereafter, resolves not to mend now.